Stanford Professor Andrei Linde celebrates physics breakthrough

Stanford Professor Andrei Linde celebrates physics breakthrough

Март 17, 2014

Assistant Professor Chao-Lin Kuo surprises Professor Andrei Linde with evidence that supports cosmic inflation theory. The discovery, made by Kuo and his colleagues at the BICEP2 experiment, represents the first images of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time. These waves have been described as the "first tremors of the Big Bang."

Producer: Bjorn Carey
Video: Kurt Hickman

For more on the discovery, see:

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8:21 Gravitational Waves Hit The Late Show

Gravitational Waves Hit The Late Show

Brian Greene stops by to demonstrate an exciting new scientific discovery

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4:6 The Terrifying Truth About Bananas

The Terrifying Truth About Bananas

Hank loves bananas and is worried about their future, so he did some investigating and wrote this episode of SciShow to share some kinda scary banana truths with us.

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10:33 Can Silence Actually Drive You Crazy?

Can Silence Actually Drive You Crazy?

*Watch with headphones on!
Is 45 minutes really the longest anyone can stay in a perfectly silent, pitch-black room?
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Many stories have circulated claiming the longest anyone has stayed in an ultra-quiet anechoic chamber is 45 minutes, the reason being any longer would drive you insane. To me this sounded like unsubstantiated rubbish, like the claim the Great Wall is the only manmade structure visible from space. So I put my own psyche on the line, subjecting myself to over an hour of the most intense quiet on Earth. No, this was not THE quietest room on Earth (-9dB) but it is one of the quietest, and the truth is once you put a person inside, they are by far the loudest thing in there so the sound rating of the room is irrelevant.

I was not surprised to find that I could stay in there for as long as I liked and feel perfectly fine. What was surprising is that my heartbeat was audible. You can hear it on the sound recording. Now I wasn't consciously aware of the sound of my heart while in the room, but I was more aware of the feeling of it beating.

Huge thank you to everyone at BYU: Duane Merrell, Spencer Perry, Cameron Vongsawad, Jazz Myers, Ann Clawson, and Robert Willes.

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10:30 World Has a New Youngest Grandmaster | Gukesh D

World Has a New Youngest Grandmaster | Gukesh D

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Gukesh D. vs Dinesh K. Sharma
Delhi Open 2019. round 9
French Defense: Tarrasch, Morozevich Variation (C03)

1. e4 e6 2. d4 d5 3. Nd2 Be7 4. e5 c5 5. c3 Nc6 6. Bd3 cxd4 7. cxd4 Qb6 8. Ndf3 Nh6 9. Ne2 f6 10. exf6 Bxf6 11. O-O Nf7 12. Nf4 Nxd4 13. Nh5 Nxf3 14. Qxf3 Be5 15. Be3 Qd8 16. Bc5 Bd7 17. Rfe1 Qc7 18. Rac1 Rc8 19. Qg4 g6 20. Ng7 Bxg7 21. Rxe6 Kd8 22. Be7 Ke8 23. Bd6 Kd8 24. Bxc7 Rxc7 25. Rxc7 Kxc7 26. Qf4

The 17th Delhi International is a 10-round Swiss Open taking place from 9-16 January 2019 in the Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium in New Delhi, India.

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13:58 How to Learn a Language: INPUT  (Why most methods don't work)

How to Learn a Language: INPUT (Why most methods don't work)

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RECOMMENDED BOOKS to get started in developing a productive approach to learning a language:
・Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition by Stephen Krashen
・Fluent forever by Gabriel Wyner
・Fluent in 3 months by Benny Lewis
◆I don't agree with everything in these books. For example, Benny Lewis has some great approaches to language, but I don't agree with "Use the Language from Day 1" unless you are entirely comfortable embarrassing yourself in front of strangers. As per Krashen's Input Theory, The affective filter hypothesis states that learners' ability to acquire language is constrained if they are experiencing negative emotions such as fear or embarrassment. I totally agree with this based on my experience and think this is why "classroom language teaching" does not work. You are risking embarrassment every time the teacher calls on you and may be in fear of failing as you study the language.
◆Also, I do not think techniques for "memorizing" words are a good use of your time, unless you are taking a language test. If your aim is to learn the language to where you can understand media in that language and have enjoyable conversations, then mnemonics are not helpful. This is because they facilitate "learning" of the language and not "acquisition." For example, if someone says "Do you know what taberu means?" You can access your mnemonic of "I eat on a table [TABEru means eat!], " but if someone says to you "issho ni gohan tabenai?" you probably won't be able to rapidly comprehend this phrase and respond in a natural way.
◆The distinction between acquisition and learning is tricky, but very important to keep in mind while you develop methods to acquiring your target language in an efficient manner.

・Beginner Vocabulary: Try and find the "Core 100" words of your target language. After you get those down, move on to the next 100 and so on. The "core" is the most commonly used words (make sure the list you get distinguishes between the 100 most commonly used spoken words and written words) Relevant resource:
・Beginner Grammar: I recommend Tim Ferriss's "13 Sentences for introducing yourself to the Grammar.

・Shadowing is simply finding a clip of a native speaker speaking and mimicking everything about their speech — pacing, intonation, cadence, and most importantly of course: pronunciation
・Try and shadow with video clips that show the speakers mouth so you can copy their mouth positioning.
・Especially if you're a beginner, do not attempt to shadow everything. For example a beginner shadowing session of an English sentence like "Hey bro I was thinking we should go grab some steak at that place around the corner when we finish work." would be like "Hey bro.... grab some... around the corner.... work." In short, you don't want to rush yourself to try and copy everything because you will mumble and that is not a good habit
・Be attentive of your frustration level. Shadowing is super hard and challenging. Let your goal be to slowly increase the amount of time you can sit in frustration. For example, one day you start shadowing, get super frustrated because you feel like you can't get more than 3 syllables right at a time and give up in 10 minutes. No problem. See if you can sit in that frustration for 11 minutes the next day. Don't overload yourself and turn language learning into a chore or you'll become more and more averse to doing language acquisition and shoot yourself in the foot.
・BEGINNERS may be especially frustrated, but even a little bit of shadowing will be very helpful. Work your way up from just 5 minutes or so.
・Get apps like "Video Speed Controller" for chrome so you can quickly adjust the video's speed on the fly. (Being able to quickly adjust the speed is especially helpful if you have one character in a TV show who mumbles and other characters who speak really clearly)
・RECORD yourself. This is a tip from @Dogen, and I wish I implemented this more often when I was learning Japanese, it adds more time to your practice, but really does reveal where your pronunciation is lacking.

・If you're trying to improve your Japanese skills, particularly pronunciation, I recommend checking out @Dogen. He's got a funny youtube channel But if you're interested in specifics on how to step up your Japanese, check out
・JLPT — If you're aiming to pass the JLPT, DON't waste any time on WRITING Kanji. It's 100% not necessary for the test (As of 2012). Just make sure you know the stroke order behind Kanji.

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35:53 Bill Gates Harvard Commencement Address 2007

Bill Gates Harvard Commencement Address 2007

Bill Gates addresses the Harvard Alumni Association in Tecentenary Theater at Harvard University's 2007 Commencement Afternoon Exercises

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9:58 Gravity Visualized

Gravity Visualized

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Dan Burns explains his space-time warping demo at a PTSOS workshop at Los Gatos High School, on March 10, 2012. Thanks to Shannon Range from the Gravity Probe B program for creating the original demonstration which he shared with Dan in 2004.
Information on how to make your own Spacetime Simulator can be found here:

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11:7 10 Mind Tricks to Master Self Discipline

10 Mind Tricks to Master Self Discipline

Today we discover 10 mind tricks to master self discipline. If you want to learn how to become more disciplined and stop being lazy and unmotivated, this video is for you!

Music: "Piano moment" from

Thanks to the rest of the TopThink team who worked on this video, including Tristan Reed (writing), and Nilesh Upadhyay (animation).

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8:50 Andrei Linde - How Far Does the Cosmos Go?

Andrei Linde - How Far Does the Cosmos Go?

Look up at the night sky. Some of those twinkles are not stars but galaxies, each with tens or hundreds of billions of stars. Even dark parts of the sky, empty to our eyes, are bright to the Hubble Telescope, teeming with innumerable galaxies. Now with multiple universes of various kinds, how far can the cosmos go?

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19:21 The more general uncertainty principle, beyond quantum

The more general uncertainty principle, beyond quantum

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is just one specific example of a much more general, relatable, non-quantum phenomenon.
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There's a key way in which the description I gave of the trade-off in Doppler radar differs from reality. Since the speed of light is so drastically greater than the speed of things being detected, the Fourier representation for pulse echoes of different objects would almost certainly overlap unless it was played for a very long time. In effect, this is what happens, since one does not send out a single pulse, but a whole bunch of evenly spaced pulses as some pulse repetition frequency (or PRF).

This means the Fourier representation of all those pulses together can actually be quite sharp. Assuming a large number of such pulses, it will look like several vertical lines spaced out by the PRF. As long as the pulses are far enough apart that the echoes of multiple objects on the field from different targets don't overlap, it's not a problem for position determinations that the full sequence of pulses occupies such a long duration. However, the trade-off now comes in choosing the right PRF. See the above article for more information.

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